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Areas of Greatest Stress By Sport

Running/Jogging:
Long distance: Hamstrings, Quadriceps, Adductors, Gastrocnemius, Knees, Ankles, Plantar Fascia, Quadratus Lumborum, Piriformis, Gluteals, Iliopsoas, Abdominals, Trapezius, Deltoids, Teres Major, Teres Minor,
Distance running stresses the joints because of the repetitive pounding and jarring of the hips, knees, ankles and feet.  The balance of the foot determines stress areas.  Pronation or supination can occur due to imbalances in the hip and psoas.

Sprinters: Iliopsoas, Gastrocnemius, Hamstrings, Piriformis, Quadratus Lumborum
Short bursts of speed require strength with higher leg lift and faster cycles of leg turnover. Running on the toes puts excess strain on the lower legs. Running one way on the track around curves put strain on the inside hip and leg. Iliotibial bands absorb stress.  The balance of the foot is important.
Groin injuries and hamstring injuries can occur during starts off the blocks.
Neck strain from excess speed should be treated as needed.

Cycling:  Low back from constant flexion; neck - extensors, SCM ; shoulders- pectoralis, trapezius, arms, wrists, hands from weight bearing on handle bars, quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteals, gastrocnemius.
Watch for overuse of hamstrings as they are in a constant shortened position.
Wrist strain may occur from clenched fists and flexor contraction.
 

Weight Lifting:  Total body stress.  Excessive abdominal exercises can lead to imbalances in the psoas.  Back problems may occur.  Strains occur when improper technique is used or lifting too much before they are strong enough.  One side is often weaker than the other which is reinforced with the lifting.  It is necessary to work all areas to build balance as injuries are usually due to imbalances in the agonist/antagonist groups.
 

Skiing:
Cross-Country : Endurance sport. abdominals, shoulders, arms, quadriceps
Downhill:  The body is in constant isometric contraction.  quadriceps, iliotibial bands

Rock Climbing: forearm flexor and extensors, hand and wrist, quadriceps
 

Tennis/Raquetball/Handball:  Arm stress especially forearm is common.  Elbow stress, Shoulder stress - deltoids, trapezius lower fibers.  Elbow and forearm stress are usually from improper posture or technique.
Iliotibial bands are usually overused with the side to side movements.
 

Baseball: Shoulder alignment is important for throwing.  The pectoral muscles, latissimus dorsi and teres major are often affected.  Quadriceps and Hamstrings can become tight from quick starts running to base or fielding.
 

Basketball:  Knees affected with jumping and landing.  Calves and achilles tendons are strained with jumping. Hamstrings are often tight.  Chest muscles are overstreched as players hold arms up in air.  Iliotibial bands are stressed with all the running.
 

Soccer:  Knee strain can occur with twisting from running and kicking.  Hips, groin, leg, knees and ankles.  Running with short bursts of speed and quick stops cause strain.
 
 

 
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