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Pathology for Massage Therapists
S

Scabies
Definition: skin infection
Causes: parasites; mites
Signs/Symptoms: itching, persistent itchy rash, dry scaly skin, highly contagious by skin to skin contact
Indications: N/A
Contraindications: refer to Physician for diagnosis

Sciatica
Definition: inflammation of the sciatic nerve
Causes: nerve root impingement caused by disc protrusion or herniation, adhesions at the nerve root, fibrosis, degenerative joint disease, piriformis syndrome, fibromyalgia
Signs/Symptoms: pain in buttocks, referring down leg, low back pain, burning, tingling
Indications: Massage to relieve spasm in piriformis, psoas, adductors, iliotibial band; balance pelvis, structural realignment.
Contraindications: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner to diagnose disc problems. Refer to appropriate health care practitioner for nutritional, diet and lifestyle changes.

Scleroderma
Definition: disease of the connective tissue of the body primarily the skin, but can affect many organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, heart, lungs, kidneys; normal tissue is replaced with fibrous connective tissue.
Causes: metabolism disorder of connective tissue and its ground substance, microvascular abnormalities, autoimmune system
Signs/Symptoms: pain and stiffness in finger and knee joints, edema and thickening of the skin, cold or cold sensitive hands and feet, difficulty breathing, hypertension, hyperthyroid, flexion contracture,  yellow or white round or oval plaques with red and blue hyperemia at the edge of them; plaques often follow the distribution of a cutaneous nerve; may have Raynaud's phenomenon or renal disease
Indications: Massage to warm skin, maintain skin elasticity, reduce pain, elicit parasympathetic response
Contraindications: ROM may be limited due to tension of the skin. If breathing is difficult, may have to treat sitting up. Cold therapy and extreme heat should be avoided. Check medications.  Refer to appropriate health care provider.
Link - Scleroderma Support

Schizophrenia
Definition: mental illness
Causes: unknown; stress, complications during birth, head injury, virus, environmental poisons, nutritional deficiencies, heredity, neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain
Signs/Symptoms: disordered thinking and perception, depression, behavioral disturbances, delusions, loss of contact with reality
Indications: Massage for stress reduction and removal of toxins
Contraindications: Check for Medications

Scoliosis
Definition: lateral curvature of the spine
Causes: muscular tightness, muscular weakness, poor posture, emotional trauma, injury, degeneration of the spine, bony abnormalities, congenital
Signs/Symptoms: rotation and lateral flexion of the spine accompanied with fixed rotation of the vertebrae, poor posture, muscle pain due to imbalances
Indications: Massage to correct and reduce curvature, decompress structures, movement re-education
Contraindications: None

Seasonal Affective Disorder
Definition: depression that occurs in the winter due to shorter and darker days
Causes: lack of sunlight, poor diet, stress
Signs/Symptoms: loss of energy, anxiety, sleep often, reduced sex drive, weight gain due to overeating
Indications: massage for stress reduction and relaxation of tense muscles
Contraindications: None; refer to appropriate health care practitioner.

Sebaceous Cyst
Definition: skin growth that contain a mixture of sebum (oil) and skin proteins
Causes: toxins, bacterial or viral infection
Signs/Symptoms: whitehead, swellings on the face, scalp and back
Indications: Massage for detoxification and stress reduction
Contraindications: Avoid inflamed area

Seborheic dermatitis
Definition: skin disorder of the sebaceous glands (oil secreting glands)
Causes: unknown; but may be nutritional deficiencies, yeast infection, stress, anxiety, oily skin, Parkinson's disease, immune deficiencies, food allergies
Signs/Symptoms: occur mainly on the scalp, face and chest, may or may not itch, scaly bumps
Indications: Massage for stress reduction
Contraindications: Avoid any inflamed areas

Seborrheid Keratosis ( Basal cell papilloma)
Definition: benign superficial epithelial tumors
Causes: nutritional deficiencies, toxin build up
Signs/Symptoms: yellow to tan to brown to black lesions that are raised above the skin
Indications: Massage for stress reduction
Contraindications: None

Seizure - see Epilepsy

Separations (joints)
Definition: separation of the joints in a side to side manner
Causes: trauma, consistent overuse of joint
Signs/Symptoms: pain, swelling, loss of ROM, excessive scar tissue formation around the joint during healing. Common area - Acromioclavicular; head of humerous forced into the acromion process tearing the acromioclavicular ligament.
Indications: Massage  for inflammation according to your level of training.
Contraindications: Refer to physician for complete separations characterized by complete displacement of the joints

Shingles (Herpes Zoster)
Definition: skin inflammation
Causes: virus; immune deficiencies, stress, cancer
Signs/Symptoms: chills, fever, achiness, blistering of skin, with excruciating pain, sensitivity to touch, numbness, depression, headache, blisters scab over and fall off
Indications: N/A
Contraindications: Highly contagious

Sinusitis ( acute/chronic)
Definition: inflammation of the nasal sinuses
Causes: excess mucus production from poor digestion, bacterial or viral production, hay fever, food allergies
Signs/Symptoms: fever, cough, headache, facial pain, cranial pressure, tenderness in the forehead and cheekbones, stuffy nose, runny nose
Indications: Massage for detoxification and stress reduction. Sinus pressure points in upper, medial corner of eyes, along ridge of cheekbone; cervical misalignment, TMJ, cranial misalignment.
Contraindications: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner.

Sjögrens Syndrome
Definition: autoimmune connective tissue disorder
Causes: hormonal changes, stress
Signs/Symptoms: dryness of the mouth and eyes, salivary gland enlargement may be present, rheumatoid arthritis; mainly in menopausal or postmenopausal women
Indications: Massage for stress reduction
Contraindications: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner

Skin Cancer
Definition: cancer of the skin
Basal cell carcinoma- most common, prevalent in fair skinned people, pearly looking bump that may bleed and never heal.
Squamous cell carcinoma- lump or tumor under the skin, appearance of a wart or small ulcerated spot that never heals, may be from overexposure to sun
Malignant Melanoma-most dangerous, tumor grows from the pigment producing cells of the deeper layers of the skin; most from moles.
Causes: overexposure to sun and tanning salons, environmental pollutants, destruction of the ozone layer
Signs/Symptoms: skin problems that don't heal, moles that bleed, moles that change in size and color, reddish irritated spot, smooth growth with an elevated border and indented center, shiny scar like area that is white, yellow or waxy.
Indications: Massage for stress reduction and detoxification
Contraindications: Lesions may be removed with cryotherapy; Use caution around these areas.
Refer to appropriate health care practitioner.

Sleep apnea
Definition: sleep disturbance; apnea means without breath.
Causes: high blood pressure, nutritional deficiencies such as calcium and magnesium, lack of exercise, poor diet, excess mucus, blocked nasal passageways (deviated septum), adrenal distress, hormonal changes
Signs/Symptoms: irregular breathing, snoring, oxygen deprivation, fatigue, feeling unrested after sleep, TMJ, cervical and cranial misalignment
Indications: Massage for stress reduction and relieve tension in neck, shoulders and back, cranial realignment, cervical realignment
Contraindications: none; Refer to appropriate health care practitioner; Bach Flower Remedies, Homeopathy, Naturopath

       

Spasm
Definition:  sudden painful contraction of muscle
Causes: trauma, injury, nutritional deficiencies, food allergies
Signs/Symptoms: pain, tightness
Indications: Massage to relieve tightness
Contraindications: none

Spina bifida
Definition: congenital disorder of the vertebral column in which the lamina do not unite at the midline
Causes: disease or sickness during pregnancy
Signs/Symptoms: protrusion of the spinal cord, urinary difficulties, absence of reflexes
Indications: Massage ok
Contraindications:none

Web resources:
Pediatric database
Spina bifida.org
 
 

Spondylothesis/spondylosis- see arthritis

Sprains
Definition: injury to ligaments (may also involve muscles or tendons); tears in ligaments
Causes: injury, overexertion, over stretching, unexpected movement
Signs/Symptoms: pain, inflammation, bruising, swelling; gradual or sudden onset; hypermobile and unstable joint, sharp pain. Common areas - ankle, knee, wrist, whiplash, joint separation or dislocation.
Indications: Massage according to your level of training. Reduce inflammation, vascular flush, Trigger point to regain flexibility, movement re-education
Contraindications: Traction may aggravate injury if it involves the injured ligaments. Traumatic injuries should be assessed by physician to determine severity.  Naturopath and Acupuncturist to speed healing with natural anti-inflammatories.

Strabismus
Definition: eye disorder in which optic axes cannot be directed to the same  object
Causes: lack of muscular coordination
Signs/Symptoms: squinting
Indications: Massage for stress reduction; eye exercises
Contraindications: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner; Bates vision specialist.

Strains
Definition: injury to muscle or tendon; rupture or tear
Causes: overexertion, over stretching, not enough rest after exertion, pushing a weak muscle beyond its abilities
Signs/Symptoms: spasm, pain, swelling, loss of movement; gradual or sudden onset.
Level 1 - 1% to 50% partial tear of fibers; some loss of function, can hold against resistance with pain, swelling, muscle guarding
Level 2 - 50%-90% fiber tear; cannot hold against moderate resistance but may hold against gravity, pain, swelling, edema, muscle guarding
Level 3 - 100% tear of fibers; snap heard at time of injury, no resistance possible, may or may not have pain
Indications: Massage according to your level of training. Reduce inflammation,  Trigger point to regain flexibility, movement re-education
Contraindications: Traumatic injuries should be assessed by physician to determine severity.  100% tear needs to be referred to physician immediately. Naturopath and Acupuncturist to speed healing with natural anti-inflammatories.

Stress
Definition: any physical, mental, emotional, chemical, stimulus that interferes with the body's natural balance
Causes: nutritional deficiencies, work, holidays, family, noise, traffic, temperature, overwork, lack of sleep, illness, drug and alcohol abuse. improper breathing; increase of cortisol in body weakens immune system.
Signs/Symptoms: fatigue, insomnia, muscle tension, high blood pressure, irritability, anxiety, stomach disorders, all physical, mental and emotional illnesses, sexual dysfunction, muscle aches, headaches
Indications: MASSAGE
Contraindications: None. Refer to appropriate health care practitioner to assist with eliminating the cause of stress and changing lifestyles.

Stroke (CVA/TIA)- see CVA
 

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - see Lupus
 

Subluxation/ fixation
Definition: deviation in articular cartilage; vertebral misalignment
Causes: muscular tightness, stress, food allergies, injury, trauma, inadequate muscle tone and awareness
Signs/Symptoms: pain, muscle spasm, muscle strength imbalance
Indications: Massage to relieve muscle spasm and tension, movement re-education and awareness exercises
Contraindications: none

Substance Abuse
Definition: addiction to drugs, alcohol, smoking
Causes: nutritional deficiencies, stress, emotional disturbances
Signs/Symptoms: their life is a mess
Indications: Massage for stress reduction
Contraindications: Be aware of side effects of medications. Refer to appropriate health care practitioner.

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