Pathology for Massage Therapists
persistent itchy rash, dry scaly skin, highly contagious by skin to skin
refer to Physician for diagnosis
of the sciatic nerve
Causes: nerve root
impingement caused by disc protrusion or herniation, adhesions at the nerve
root, fibrosis, degenerative joint disease, piriformis syndrome, fibromyalgia
in buttocks, referring down leg, low back pain, burning, tingling
to relieve spasm in piriformis, psoas, adductors, iliotibial band; balance
pelvis, structural realignment.
Refer to appropriate health care practitioner to diagnose disc problems.
Refer to appropriate health care practitioner for nutritional, diet and
of the connective tissue of the body primarily the skin, but can affect
many organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, heart, lungs, kidneys;
normal tissue is replaced with fibrous connective tissue.
disorder of connective tissue and its ground substance, microvascular abnormalities,
and stiffness in finger and knee joints, edema and thickening of the skin,
cold or cold sensitive hands and feet, difficulty breathing, hypertension,
hyperthyroid, flexion contracture, yellow or white round or oval
plaques with red and blue hyperemia at the edge of them; plaques often
follow the distribution of a cutaneous nerve; may have Raynaud's phenomenon
or renal disease
to warm skin, maintain skin elasticity, reduce pain, elicit parasympathetic
ROM may be limited due to tension of the skin. If breathing is difficult,
may have to treat sitting up. Cold therapy and extreme heat should be avoided.
Check medications. Refer to appropriate health care provider.
Link - Scleroderma
stress, complications during birth, head injury, virus, environmental poisons,
nutritional deficiencies, heredity, neurotransmitter imbalances in the
thinking and perception, depression, behavioral disturbances, delusions,
loss of contact with reality
for stress reduction and removal of toxins
Check for Medications
curvature of the spine
tightness, muscular weakness, poor posture, emotional trauma, injury, degeneration
of the spine, bony abnormalities, congenital
and lateral flexion of the spine accompanied with fixed rotation of the
vertebrae, poor posture, muscle pain due to imbalances
to correct and reduce curvature, decompress structures, movement re-education
Seasonal Affective Disorder
that occurs in the winter due to shorter and darker days
Causes: lack of sunlight,
poor diet, stress
of energy, anxiety, sleep often, reduced sex drive, weight gain due to
for stress reduction and relaxation of tense muscles
None; refer to appropriate health care practitioner.
growth that contain a mixture of sebum (oil) and skin proteins
Causes: toxins, bacterial
or viral infection
swellings on the face, scalp and back
for detoxification and stress reduction
Avoid inflamed area
disorder of the sebaceous glands (oil secreting glands)
but may be nutritional deficiencies, yeast infection, stress, anxiety,
oily skin, Parkinson's disease, immune deficiencies, food allergies
mainly on the scalp, face and chest, may or may not itch, scaly bumps
for stress reduction
Avoid any inflamed areas
Seborrheid Keratosis ( Basal cell papilloma)
superficial epithelial tumors
deficiencies, toxin build up
to tan to brown to black lesions that are raised above the skin
for stress reduction
Seizure - see Epilepsy
of the joints in a side to side manner
Causes: trauma, consistent
overuse of joint
swelling, loss of ROM, excessive scar tissue formation around the joint
during healing. Common area - Acromioclavicular; head of humerous forced
into the acromion process tearing the acromioclavicular ligament.
for inflammation according to your level of training.
Refer to physician for complete separations characterized by complete displacement
of the joints
Shingles (Herpes Zoster)
Causes: virus; immune
deficiencies, stress, cancer
fever, achiness, blistering of skin, with excruciating pain, sensitivity
to touch, numbness, depression, headache, blisters scab over and fall off
Sinusitis ( acute/chronic)
of the nasal sinuses
Causes: excess mucus
production from poor digestion, bacterial or viral production, hay fever,
cough, headache, facial pain, cranial pressure, tenderness in the forehead
and cheekbones, stuffy nose, runny nose
for detoxification and stress reduction. Sinus pressure points in upper,
medial corner of eyes, along ridge of cheekbone; cervical misalignment, TMJ, cranial misalignment.
to appropriate health care practitioner.
connective tissue disorder
of the mouth and eyes, salivary gland enlargement may be present, rheumatoid
arthritis; mainly in menopausal or postmenopausal women
for stress reduction
Refer to appropriate health care practitioner
of the skin
Basal cell carcinoma-
most common, prevalent in fair skinned people, pearly looking bump that
may bleed and never heal.
Squamous cell carcinoma-
lump or tumor under the skin, appearance of a wart or small ulcerated spot
that never heals, may be from overexposure to sun
dangerous, tumor grows from the pigment producing cells of the deeper layers
of the skin; most from moles.
to sun and tanning salons, environmental pollutants, destruction of the
problems that don't heal, moles that bleed, moles that change in size and
color, reddish irritated spot, smooth growth with an elevated border and
indented center, shiny scar like area that is white, yellow or waxy.
for stress reduction and detoxification
Lesions may be removed with cryotherapy; Use caution around these areas.
Refer to appropriate health
disturbance; apnea means without breath.
Causes: high blood
pressure, nutritional deficiencies such as calcium and magnesium, lack
of exercise, poor diet, excess mucus, blocked nasal passageways (deviated
septum), adrenal distress, hormonal changes
breathing, snoring, oxygen deprivation, fatigue, feeling unrested after
sleep, TMJ, cervical and cranial misalignment
for stress reduction and relieve tension in neck, shoulders and back, cranial
realignment, cervical realignment
none; Refer to appropriate health care practitioner; Bach Flower Remedies,
sudden painful contraction of muscle
Causes: trauma, injury,
nutritional deficiencies, food allergies
to relieve tightness
disorder of the vertebral column in which the lamina do not unite at the
Causes: disease or
sickness during pregnancy
of the spinal cord, urinary difficulties, absence of reflexes
Spondylothesis/spondylosis- see arthritis
to ligaments (may also involve muscles or tendons); tears in ligaments
Causes: injury, overexertion,
over stretching, unexpected movement
inflammation, bruising, swelling; gradual or sudden onset; hypermobile
and unstable joint, sharp pain. Common areas - ankle, knee, wrist, whiplash,
joint separation or dislocation.
according to your level of training. Reduce inflammation, vascular flush,
Trigger point to regain flexibility, movement re-education
may aggravate injury if it involves the injured ligaments. Traumatic injuries
should be assessed by physician to determine severity. Naturopath
and Acupuncturist to speed healing with natural anti-inflammatories.
Definition: eye disorder
in which optic axes cannot be directed to the same object
Causes: lack of muscular
for stress reduction; eye exercises
Refer to appropriate health care practitioner; Bates vision specialist.
to muscle or tendon; rupture or tear
over stretching, not enough rest after exertion, pushing a weak muscle
beyond its abilities
pain, swelling, loss of movement; gradual or sudden onset.
Level 1 - 1% to 50% partial tear of fibers; some loss
of function, can hold against resistance with pain, swelling, muscle guarding
Level 2 - 50%-90% fiber tear; cannot hold against moderate
resistance but may hold against gravity, pain, swelling, edema, muscle
Level 3 - 100% tear of fibers; snap heard at time of
injury, no resistance possible, may or may not have pain
according to your level of training. Reduce inflammation, Trigger
point to regain flexibility, movement re-education
Traumatic injuries should be assessed by physician to determine severity.
100% tear needs to be referred to physician immediately. Naturopath and
Acupuncturist to speed healing with natural anti-inflammatories.
Definition: any physical,
mental, emotional, chemical, stimulus that interferes with the body's natural
deficiencies, work, holidays, family, noise, traffic, temperature, overwork,
lack of sleep, illness, drug and alcohol abuse. improper breathing; increase
of cortisol in body weakens immune system.
insomnia, muscle tension, high blood pressure, irritability, anxiety, stomach
disorders, all physical, mental and emotional illnesses, sexual dysfunction,
muscle aches, headaches
None. Refer to appropriate health care practitioner to assist with eliminating
the cause of stress and changing lifestyles.
Stroke (CVA/TIA)- see CVA
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - see Lupus
in articular cartilage; vertebral misalignment
tightness, stress, food allergies, injury, trauma, inadequate muscle tone
muscle spasm, muscle strength imbalance
to relieve muscle spasm and tension, movement re-education and awareness
to drugs, alcohol, smoking
deficiencies, stress, emotional disturbances
life is a mess
for stress reduction
Be aware of side effects of medications. Refer to appropriate health care
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