Explorations in the Theory and Practice
General Time Line
The information in this timeline is from many sources, mainly massage textbooks, massage books and massage school manuals. There are many contradictions in the various sources and much misinformation included in those sources. So that means that this chart is quite inaccurate even though you will find the same information in various sources. I know little about history myself. This information will hopefully give some background and intrigue your interests to pursue more information on the history of massage, bodywork and other related modalities.
3000 BC- Chinese: Cong-Fu of the Toa-Tse. Oldest known book written about massage. Translated to French in 1700’s.
2760- Nei Ching describes therapeutic touch
2500 BC – Egyptians created reflexology.
2000 BC- First Writings about Massage
1800 BC- Ayurvedic. Art of Life book that included massage techniques. In India, the focus was on sensual massage aspects. Ayur-Veda is a code of life and it deals with rebirth, renunciation, salvation, soul, purpose of life, maintenance of mental health, prevention and treatment of diseases.
1600 B.C.- in Egypt the first record of chemotherapy being employed as a treatment for cancer
1555 BC- A medical papyri contains remedies for all types of illnesses and the methods of application are similar to the ones used in Aromatherapy and Herbal medicine today.
1000 BC- Homer wrote about an oily medium used for massage
776 BC- Olympic Games. Athletes massaged prior to their events.
604-531 BC - The founder of Taoism is believed to be Lao-Tse
500 BC- Herodicus- prescribed gymnastics to heal. Considered to be the founder of medical Gymnastics.
460-380 BC- Hippocrates was taught by Herodicus. Used Friction to treat sprains and dislocations (called anatripsis-Greek for friction). Thought that disease resulted from natural causes and the body has the power to heal itself. Wrote code of ethics that became the Hippocratic Oath. Hippocrates said: hard rubbing binds…much rubbing causes parts to waste…and moderate rubbing makes them grow.
200 BC- Greek physician Galen used natural magnets to relieve pain in treating many illnesses.
200 BC- The Huangdi Nei Jing (Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic) is the earliest surviving canonical text of traditional Chinese medicine. Anmo is referred to in 30 different chapters of the Nei Jing.
100-44 BC- Romans. Julius Caesar used Massage therapy to relieve his neuralgia and epileptic seizures. Was thought to have been “Pinched” every day.
130 AD- 201 AD - Galen. Originally from Greece. Physician for the school of gladiators who were rubbed before fighting. Wrote book on manual medicine.
90 BC – Chinese created acupuncture.
25 BC- 50 AD- Aulus Cornelius Celsius. Roman Physician. Wrote De Medicina (8 textbooks with a lot of information on massage).
100’s AD – First schools of massage were developed in china
228 AD-337 AD- The Roman Emperor Constantine condemned the baths and gymnasiums as he thought they added to the abuse of sex.
589 AD-617 AD- Sui Dynasty already had knowledge of Massage used as therapy.
600’s – Japanese developed shiatsu (finger pressure or acupressure), anma is massage in Japanese.
980 AD-1037 AD- Avicenna, Persian medic, wrote the Canon of Medicine during the crusades. May have been the first used the process known as distillation to distill essence of rose, although it probably took many years to perfect the process
1300-1368- Guy deChauliac wrote a book on surgery mentioning bodywork as an adjunct to surgery.
1368-1644 In the Ming Dynasty, pediatric massage (which, for the first time, was referred to as "tuina") evolved into a highly systematic treatment modality which is still popular today.
1517-1590- Ambroise Pare, French barber surgeon, raised awareness of the use of massage
1569- Girolamo Mercuriale wrote the first sports medicine book.
1564-1626- Lord Francis Bacon observed that massage had benefits enhancing circulation.
1608-1679 – Giovanni Alfonso Borelli studied muscular contraction.
1660-1742 - Prussia. Friedrich Hoffman, physician to King of Prussia recommended rubbing and gymnastics for the royal court.
1742-1823 - John Grosvenor, English surgeon practiced healing with hands.
1776-1839 - Per Henrik Ling- fencing master and gymnast studied massage after he cured himself of rheumatism in his arm. Developed a system of Medical Gymnastics. Per Henrik ling is not the father of swedish massage!!
1800's-Reiki is believed to date back to early Tibetan healing practices. Discovered in the 1800's by a Japanese philosopher and Christian seminary educator, Dr. Mikao Usui
1813- Per Henrik Ling formed the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. His students carried on his work after his death.
1837 - Ling’s disciple, M. LeRon brought Movement Cure to Russia, St. Petersburg.
1839-1909 - Johann Mezger. Holland. Brought medical massage to scientific community. Started using the terms effleurage, petrissage and tapotement.
1850s- scientific massage therapy was introduced in the United States by two New York physicians, brothers George and Charles Taylor, who had studied in Sweden.
1856 - Mathias Roth, English physician, taught Charles Fayette Taylor and George Henry Taylor who brought massage to the US
1852-1943 - John Harvey Kellogg, Battle Creek Sanitarium used massage and hydrotherapy. Published magazine called "Good Health"
1850s- Karl von Reichenbach discovered kerosene and paraffin
1879 - Douglas Graham-described lomi lomi and wrote a history of massage. May have been first to use massage in USA.
1880 - Mary Putnam Jacobi and Victoria A White in New York City. Medical Doctors and professors who researched the benefits of massage and ice packs in the management of anemia.
1884 - Professor Charcot. French Physician taught Sigmund Freud. Though French doctors should use massage more.
1884 - Massage Scandals in Europe. Physicians became skeptical of claims made by massage therapist and accused practitioners of stealing patients.
1894 - Society of Trained Masseuses formed in Britain. Set up study of massage along with prerequisites for education and criteria for school recognition.
1895 - Sigmund Freud. Used Massage Therapy to treat hysteria. Studies in Hysteria. Postulated that what we did not or will not confront in our lives would be buried in the body in the unconscious mind.
-Harvey Kellogg -"The Art of Massage" -Full text available online at
1899 - Sir William Bennet- Started a massage department at St. George’s Hospital in London.
1800's-Canadian Deep Muscle This technique addresses specific muscles and muscle groups. The practitioners are trained to fix specific problems. It is a fundamental technique that offers fast results for both pain and stress. This form of cross fiber massage was first written about in the late 1800's in New York City.
1900 - Albert Hoffa- wrote book “Technike der Massage”.
1900s early- Jin shin jyutsu, the "art of circulation awakening," was developed in Japan by Jiro Murai and brought to the United States in the 1960s by Mary Iino Burmeister.
1900's early- The Alexander Technique was developed by an Australian actor F.M. Alexander
1907 - Edgar Ferdinand Cyriax- Used Ling’s Swedish Movement Cure and Mechanotherapeutics.
1907-Naprapathy originated by a chiropractor in
1913 - Dr. William Fitzgerald rediscovered Reflexology and called it Zone Therapy.
1917- James Mennell. London. St. Thomas Hospital. Did physical treatment by movement, manipulation and massage.
W.W.I- Swedish massage used for rehabilitation of injured soldiers.
1927 - New York State Society of Medical Massage Therapists (first massage association)
1929 - Elizabeth Dicke, German physical therapist created “Bindgewebs massage” or connective tissue massage. Used reflex zones.
1930’s - Hospitals staffed Physical Therapists who were doing massage.
1930- Neuromuscular Therapy created by Stanley Leif.
1932 - Emil Voder. Danish physiologist created Manual Lymph Drainage.
1934 - Wilhelm
Reich - Austrian psychoanalysis. Freud’s student. Used Somato
techniques to dissolve muscular armor. Attempted to cure neuroses by releasing
their corresponding muscle tensions by using breath, movement and physical
manipulation. The community was outraged at the thought of using physical
contact. He was sent to prison for his conflicts and died there.
1937-A French chemist, Rene Maurice Gattefosse, began his research into the healing powers of essential oils after burning his hand in his laboratory and immersing in it in lavender oil and being impressed by how quickly the burn healed. He published a book about the anti -microbial effects of the oils and coined the word Aromatherapy.
1939 - The Florida State Massage Therapy Association Inc. (FSMTA) was first organized on June 15, 1939 one of the oldest massage organization, with 85 charter members. The first Massage Act was passed by the Florida Legislature in 1943.
1940 – James Cyriax, son of Edgar Ferdinand Cyriax, and British Osteopath, created deep transverse friction.
1943 - Chicago American Association of Masseurs and Masseuses formed. Later to become American Massage Therapy Association. Dues were $.50.
1949 - Massage Registration Act formulated by AMM.
1944 - Harold Storms- Storms technique for fibrositic nodules.
1950’s - Francis Tappan and Gertrude Beard wrote books and articles on massage techniques.
1952 - Janet Travell researches Triggerpoints.
1952-Hoshino Therapy developed by Tomezo Hoshino, Hoshino Therapy is an official medical therapy in Argentina.
1956 - Margaret Knott and Dorothy Vass wrote a book called “Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation”.
1960’s - Albert Baumgartner used Massage in Athletics.
1960’s – Esalen became a center to explore human potential. Ida Rolf did her first trainings there. Deane Juhan worked there. Bernie Gunther trained people to do massage.
1964 - Applied Kinesiology was founded by Chiropractor George Goodheart
1966 - Raymond Nimmo-Wrote book " The Receptor Tonus Method ", which came from his work with "noxious generative points".
1960's late- John Barnes,developed Myofascial Release Therapy
1971-Core Energetics Started by Dr. John Pierralcos
in 1971, core energetics adds a more spiritual aspect to bioenergetics.
1972 - Moshe Feldenkrais, writes "Awareness Through Movement" which follows up
to his 1949 publication The Body and Mature Behavior.
1973-Zero Balancing was developed by osteopath and
1976-Myotherapy (book) developed by Bonnie Prudden
1977- Aston-Patterning is developed by Judith Aston www.astonenterprises.com (form of rolfing)
1978-Soma Neuromuscular Integration developed by Bill Williams, Ph.D, one of the first students of Ida Rolf
1980’s - Association of Bodywork and Massage Practitioners formed.
1980’s-Taws Method (Soft Tissue Release) was developed by Stuart Taws (his website), a British sports rehabilitation therapist now residing in America
1981 - Lauren Berry, a physical therapist and mechanical engineer, recorded his methods of manipulating joints, "The Berry Method, Volume I"
identifies tenderpoints and develops "Strain- Counterstrain"
techniques of treating points.
1983 - Janet Travell writes book. with David Simons. "Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Triggerpoint Manual : Volumes I & 2
1990’s- David Palmer creates and markets On Site Massage using a massage chair. www.touchpro.org
1990- protocol for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) defined by the American College of Rheumatology
1991 - Touch Research Institute created.
1992 - National Certification . see also: licensing and legislation issues
2001- CAM law activated in Minnesota
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